AUGUST 28, 1910 - NOVEMBER 23, 2002

On November 23, 2002, Muwekma Tribal Elder, Mary Munoz Archuleta, passed away at the age of 92. Mary was married four times and was the loving wife of Jose Mora, Jose Ramos, Louis Medina, Sr., and Mike Archuleta. Mary was also the mother of Joseph Mora, Lupe Mora Massiatt, Margaret Mora, Alice Mora, Frances Mora Smith, Jenny Mora Galvan, Virginia Mora Massiet, Louis E. Medina, Edward Medina and Jesse Ramos. She had thirty-three grandchildren, sixty-eight great-grandchildren, and twenty-eight great-great-grandchildren.

Born in the Pleasanton/Livermore area on August 28, 1910, she was named Maria Munoz by her parents, Victoria Marine and John Munoz. Mary was their eldest child and she was baptized at St. Augustine's Church on September 25, 1910. Mary's godparents were Ramon Musquez and Dorothea Musquez of Livermore, whom were also Eddie Thompson's godparents in 1914, and Dorothea was Domingo Larry Marine's godmother in 1919.

Victoria and John Munoz had four children together. In 1912, Victoria gave birth to Maria Andrea Joanne Munoz. Andrea was baptized at Mission San Jose and Susanna and Charles Nichols were her godparents. Andrea died as a little child. Five years later, Victoria gave birth to, Muwekma Elder, Flora Freda Munoz.

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Flora was baptized at St. Augustine's Church and her godparents were Frank Nichols and the aunt of Erolinda Santos Corral, Maria Neis Santos. Flora later married Jack Guzman and she is buried at St. Joseph's Cemetery (a.k.a. Boot Hill) next to her oldest child, John Guzman. Victoria's last child was John Salvador Munoz, who died as a child on March 26, 1921 and on his death record it states that he was buried at the Ohlone Cemetery in Fremont. After a very hard life, Mary's mother, Victoria Marine Munoz, died on November 27, 1922 of tuberculosis and is also buried at the Ohlone Cemetery.

After the death of her mother, Mary went to live with Maggie Pinos Juarez in Newark. It was during this time she met and married Jose Mora and moved to Oakland. In 1928, Mary was 18 years old and she had her first child, named Joseph Mora. Mary and Jose would have six additional children together, Lupe, Margaret, Alice, Frances, Jenny, and Virginia. After Virginia is born, Jose Mora passes away and Mary married Louis Medina, Sr. and by 1940 they had their first child together, Louis Medina, Jr. Soon after, they had Edward Medina. By 1945, Louis Medina, Sr. passes away and Mary married Jose Ramos and in 1946 they have their first child together, named Jesse Ramos. During this period of time, life is very difficult for Mary's family. For a short period of time they move back to Newark and Mary's Aunt Trina Marine Thompson Ruano helps take care of Mary and her family. By the late 1940s, Jose Ramos passes away. Mary is later introduced to and marries an Apache Indian named Mike Archuleta. During the 1950s and 1960s Mike and Mary are very active at Pow-Wows sponsored by the Indian Friendship house in Oakland. Mary helps make Mike's dance regalia.

During the 1950s, Mary's aunts and Tribal Elders Trina Marine Thompson Ruano and Dolores Marine Alvarez Piscopo Galvan contacted her, in order to enroll the families with the Bureau of Indian Affairs under the California Indian Claims Settlement. Meetings were held at her Aunt Trina's house and Mary gets the application forms and enrolls her children. Mary's youngest daughter, Virginia, who went to live with Maggie Pinos and Pete Juarez, had moved to Stockton and lived with Erolinda Santos Corral and her son, Robert Corral. Mary took a bus to Stockton to make sure that Virginia was signed up with the BIA.

Years later, during the early 1960s, the Ohlone families gathered and worked under the principal efforts of their great-aunt Dolores Marine Alvarez Piscopo Galvan and her cousin, Dottie Galvan Lameira, in order to protect the Ohlone Indian Cemetery in Fremont from destruction. Mary and her family attended various meetings and barbecues that were held near Mission San Jose. She also worked cleaning up and weeding the cemetery and attending these meetings as well. Mary was also listed as a Member of the "Ohlone Chapter, American Indian Historical Society", along with her Aunt Dolores Marine Galvan and her cousins and her daughter, Jenny Galvan.

By 1984, the Muwekma Ohlone Tribal leadership formed a formal tribal government in order to articulate with Federal, State, and local agencies about legal and cultural issues confronting the disenfranchised Muwekma Ohlone Tribal community. As the tribal council developed policies and political strategies to deal with legal issues, Mary and her family had been introduced to the effort by the tribe to obtain Federal Recognition from the U.S. Government. By the time the tribe sent in its letter to petition the Federal Government for Acknowledgement in 1989, Mary's family got involved with both archaeological issues and the tribe's efforts to attain Federal Recognition. Mary participated as a Tribal Elder at tribal council meetings, tribal sponsored events, and educational workshops. During the Tribe's response to the BIA's negative proposed finding, Mary along with several of her children and her cousins provided critical oral histories that helped reverse some of the negative findings and disprove some of the negative assumptions that the BIA had determined were true.

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Mary Archuleta was a bridge between two worlds - the harsh transitional world of the neglected Verona Band of Alameda County of which she was the eldest surviving member of that Federally Acknowledged tribal entity - and the revitalized and organized Muwekma Ohlone Tribe to which she was indeed a Tribal Elder of distinction. Soft spoken, she fully knew and understood her Ohlone Indian identity, however, she carried deep within her the memories of her childhood and the pain of family disruption through the loss of her mother, Victoria Marine, when she was 12 years old.

Mary lived to see a potentially bright future for all of the Muwekma Ohlone families. She also saw history being made when the title of the Ohlone Indian Cemetery in Fremont was passed from the Catholic Church to the American Indian Historical Society, and then to her cousins whom made up the Board of Directors of Ohlone Indian Tribe, Inc. Mary lived to see the Muwekma obtain a formal determination by the BIA of previous unambiguous Federal recognition, a successful lawsuit against the Department of the Interior, and a positive determination that 100% of the enrolled membership are directly descended from a member of the previously recognized Verona Band, which was also determined to be a historic tribe. Mary also lived to see U.S. District Judge, Ricardo Urbina state:

"The Muwekma Tribe is a tribe of Ohlone Indians indigenous to the present-day San Francisco Bay area. In the early part of the Twentieth Century, the Department of the Interior ("DOI") recognized the Muwekma tribe as an Indian tribe under the jurisdiction of the United States."

Mary represented the fifth generation of a line of Ohlone Indian women whose lives were disrupted by the expanding Hispanic Empire and the American Conquest of California. All of Mary's maternal Ohlone ancestors came into the Mission San Jose. Mary's lineage is descended from her great-great-grandmother Efrena Quennatole who was born in 1797 and was of the Karkin Ohlone/Napian Tribe of the North Bay and her great-great-grandfather, Liberato Culpecse who was born in 1787 and baptized at Mission Dolores and was of the Jalquin Tribe of the East Bay.

Efrena and Liberato's daughter was Maria Efrena Yakilamne. She was born in 1832 and was baptized at and buried through Mission San Jose at the Ohlone Cemetery. Maria Efrena married Panfilio Yakilamne and their daughter was Avelina Cornates Marine who was born in 1863 and was baptized at and buried through Mission San Jose (Ohlone Cemetery) in 1904. One of Avelina's daughters was (Fernandez Vikalum) Victoria Marine Munoz who was born on May 9, 1897 on the Pleasanton Rancheria and was baptized at and buried through Mission San Jose (Ohlone Cemetery) in 1922 at the age of 25.

Following in the footsteps of her mother, grandmother, great-grandmother, great-great grandmother, and her Ohlone ancestors, Mary carried herself with a quiet dignity. At her 90th birthday held at the Pleasanton Fairgrounds (St. Augustine's Church was not cooperative), Mary was honored by her children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren, great-great grandchildren, and her tribe.

As the Eldest surviving member of the Verona Band (1906-1927) and an elder of the Tribe, her passing leaves a major gulf in the lives of everyone within the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe. Mary Archuleta is survived by her loving family, her sons Joseph Mora, Louis Medina, Jr., Edward Medina, Jesse Ramos and daughters Lupe Massiatt, Frances Smith, Jenny Galvan, and Virginia Massiet. She is also survived by all of her grandchildren, great-grandchildren, great-great-grandchildren, and by her relations of the Marine lineage and tribal members of the other lineages enrolled in the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe.

Mary was born four years after the Verona Band became Federally Recognized and seventeen years before her tribe - the Verona Band of Alameda County -- was illegally "Terminated" by a BIA bureaucrat, Lafayette A. Dorrington, who was derelict in his duties to all of the California Indian Tribes under his jurisdiction. Mary was born fourteen years before most American Indians became citizens in 1924, because so many Indian men, including Muwekma men served in World War I.

Mary's relations of the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe have been waiting since 1906 for their rights to be recognized by the United States Government. Mary had been waiting her entire 92-year life span for full Federal rights to be accorded to her tribe. In her own quiet way, Mary had made major contributions towards the reaffirmation of the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe and she leaves that legacy for the future generations of the Tribe.

Mary, Go With Peace And Join Your Sisters, Brother, Cousins, Aunts, Uncles, Relations, And Ancestors And Know That You Made This World A Better Place For Your Tribe. Aho!


Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name; Thy kingdom come; Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread; and forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us; and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. Amen. Luke 11:2

Memorial Service
Mary Munoz Archuleta


Grissom Mortuary
267 E. Lewelling Boulevard
San Lorenzo, CA
Phone: (510) 278-2800

Sunday, December 1, 2002 from 12:00pm to 5:00pm

Vigil Service
Sunday, December 1, 2002 at 3:00pm

Our Lady Of Grace
3433 Somerset Avenue
Castro Valley, CA 94546
(510) 582-9266

Monday, December 2, 2002 at 10:00am

Holy Sepulchre Cemetery
26320 Mission Blvd.
Hayward, CA 94544
(Corner of Mission Blvd. and Harder Rd.)
Phone: (510) 581-2488

To follow immediately after the Mass
Castro Valley Community Center
18988 Lake Chabot Road
Castro Valley, CA 94546

Family Gathering
To follow immediately after the Internment
1:00pm to 5:00pm

On behalf of the family, we want to express our sincere gratitude to all those that contributed in one-way or another to make this a memorable service.

"And though I be absent in the flesh, yet I am with you in the Spirit." Col. 2:5

In Loving Memory Of Muwekma Tribal Elder Mary Munoz Archuleta

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