Tcholovoni, cousins of the Muwekma.


In 1775 the first Spanish ship sailed into the San Francisco Bay. On board was Father Vincente Santamaria, who decided to go ashore and visit a village located some distance inland, and has left us with the following account:

There was in authority over all of these Indians one whose kingly presence marked his eminence above the rest. Our men made a landing, and when they had done so the Indian chief addressed a long speech to them...



After the feast, and while they were having a pleasant time with the Indians, our men saw a large number of heathen approaching, all armed with bows and arrows. ...

This fear obliged the sailing master to make known by signs to the Indian chieftain the misgivings they had in the presence of so many armed tribesmen.

The chief, understanding what was meant, at once directed the Indians to loosen their bows and put up all of their arrows, and they were prompt to obey.

The number of Indians who had gathered together was itself alarming enough. There were more than four hundred of them, and all, or most of them, were of good height and well built.